How to Cite Your Sources in MLA Style
Based on: MLA Handbook, 9th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2021.
Call no.: LB2369 .M52 2021. There are two copies at the Reference Desk and two on the 3rd floor.
For detailed, online information, please visit the MLA Style Web site:
There are two steps to citing sources: creating in-text citations and creating a “Works Cited” list to appear at the end of your paper.
In-text Citations. In-text citations are parenthetical statements inserted in the body of your text. Whenever you quote directly from a source or paraphrase another writer’s work, you need to supply an in-text citation. In-text citations direct the reader to a source listed in the “Works Cited” section of your paper. In-text citations should contain 1) the last name of an author (or authors) whose work appears in the “Works Cited” section; 2) a title keyword if multiple works by the same author are cited; and 3) a page number or other locating number.
Works Cited. This a list of the works you have actually cited in your paper or research project. The works should be listed in alphabetical order and begin with the author’s last name or, when there is no apparent author, the first prominent word of a title.
The following section features two works as they would appear in a Works Cited list, and four in-text citations based on those two works. Additional Works Cited examples follow.
BOOK (1 author; this author uses initials rather than a full first name)
Brands, H.W. American Colossus: The Triumph of Capitalism, 1865-1900. Doubleday, 2010.
NEWSPAPER ARTICLE (Online; no author)
“U. of Vermont Abolishes Carnival Scored as Racist.” The New York Times (1923-Current file), 2 Nov. 1969, p. 59. ProQuest Historical Newspapers, search.proquest.com/ docview/118632689? accountid=14679
The official report on The Great Fire of 1871 exonerates the cow but still mentions the O’Leary farm (Brands 582).
Author mentioned in text:
As H.W. Brands points out, the official report does not state how the fire started (582).
When multiple works by same author are consulted:
According to Brands, the official report does not state how the fire started (American Colossus 582).
Another in-text citation with a title:
Students decided to replace Kake Walk with a “winter music and film festival” (“U. of Vermont” 59).
Marshall, Grace. How to Be REALLY Productive. E-book ed., Pearson Education, 2015.
BOOK (2 authors)
Halperin, Mark, and John Heilemann. Double Down: Game Change 2012. Penguin Press, 2013.
BOOK (3+ authors)
Note use of et al. (Lat., "and others") and UP ("University Press").
Johnston, Richard, et al. The 2000 Presidential Election and the Foundations of Party Politics. Cambridge UP, 2004.
BOOK (1 editor)
Bloom, Harold, editor. American Poetry 1946 to 1965. Chelsea House Publishers, 1987
BOOK (2+ editors)
Frye, Joshua J. and Michael S. Bruner, editors. The Rhetoric of Food: Discourse, Materiality, and Power. Routledge, 2012.
BOOK (2+ editors, "et al." option)
Breakey, Suellen, et al., editors. Global Health Nursing in the 21st Century. Springer, 2015.
TRANSLATED WORK (emphasis on translator)
Briggs, Anthony, translator. War and Peace. By Leo Tolstoy, Viking, 2006.
Chapter or Part of a Book
Stecopoulos, Harilaos. "Henry James, Propagandist." Henry James Today, Cambridge Scholars, 2014, pp. 71-86.
ESSAY IN A BOOK
Note use and placement of "edited by," reserved for other contributors (MLA Handbook 37).
Popp, Ann Marie, et al. “Gender, Bullying Victimization, and Education.” Perspectives on Bullying: Research on Childhood, Workplace, and Cyberbullying, edited by Roland D. Maiuro, Springer, 2015, pp. 1-14.
ENCYCLOPEDIA ENTRY (print)
Since the publisher is Encyclopædia Universalis, it is omitted.
Agulhon, Maurice. “Provence.” Encyclopædia Universalis, vol. 19, 1992, pp. 146-147.
ENCYCLOPEDIA ENTRY (online)
Note *date of access.
Luhr, William. “Film Noir.” Oxford Bibliographies: Cinema and Media Studies, Oxford UP, *13 May 2016, DOI: 10.1093/obo/ 9780199791286-0029
JOURNAL ARTICLE (print)
Canonici, N. N. “The Sour Milk of Contention: Analysis of a Zulu Folktale.” African Studies, vol. 48, no. 1, 1989, pp. 1-36.
JOURNAL ARTICLE (online)
Day-Vines, Norma L., and Cheryl Holcomb-McCoy. “Wellness among African American Counselors.” Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, vol. 46, no. 1, Spring 2007, pp. 82-97. ProQuest, search.proquest.com/docview/212445861
Kinzel, Bob. “Marijuana Legalization in Vermont: What Happened, and What’s Next?” VPR [Vermont Public Radio]: News, 9 May 2016, digital.vpr.net/ post/marijuana-legalization-vermont-what-happened- and-whats-next. Accessed 9 May 2016 (if no other date is given).
DVD of Television Episode
Emphasis is on writer, but other participants could be mentioned.
“Bed Bugs and Beyond.” Orange is the New Black: Season Three, written by Jim Danger Gray, episode 2, Lionsgate, 2016, disc 1.
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