How to Cite Your Sources in Chicago Style
Documentation Type: Author-Date System
The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2017) includes two documentation systems. System preference depends on the discipline. Ask your instructor for clarification if you are unsure which system to use. The system described in this guide, the author-date system, has entries for a reference list of cited works and author-date citations inserted in the text. (A guide to thte other system is also available.) For detailed information about The Chicago Manual of Style, see the complete manual shelved near the reference desk under the call number: Ref Desk Z253 .U69 2017.
In text citations include the author's last name, publication year, and page numbers; see examples labeled In-Text
For the reference list, see examples labeled Reference:
- Use WORKS CITED or REFERENCES as the header for your reference list.
- Arrange in alphabetical order by last name, then in chronological order for entries by the same author.
Reference: Phelps, Renata, Kath Fisher, and Allan Ellis. 2007. Organizing and Managing Your Research: A Practical Guide for Postgraduates. Los Angeles: SAGE. In-Text: (Phelps, Fisher, and Ellis 2007, 143-144)
A corporation can be listed as an author.
For four or more authors, follow this format, listing all authors in the reference list entry. For the in-text citation, however, list only the first named author and add et al., for example:
(Hancock et al. 2009, 13-15)
Editor, translator, or compiler instead of author
Reference: Cahan, David, ed. 2003. From Natural Philosophy to the Sciences: Writing the History of Nineteenth-Century Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. In-Text: (Cahan 2003, 267)
For editors in addition to an author, see Chapter or other part of a book.
Chapter or other part of a book
Reference: Constable, Catherine. 2009. “Reflections on the Surface: Remaking the Postmodern with van Sant’s Psycho.” In Adaptation in Contemporary Culture: Textual Infidelities, edited by Rachel Carroll, 23-33. New York: Continuum. In-Text: (Constable 2009, 27)
Note: The page range for the chapter or part is listed in the reference (23-33). Also, editors, translators, and compilers, in addition to an author are listed after the title.
Article in a print journal
Reference: Cain, Arthur James. 1956. “The Genus in Evolutionary Taxonomy.” Systematic Zoology 5:97-109. In-Text: (Cain 1956, 102)
Include the issue number, for example: 5(3):97-109, only if the issue has separate pagination (begins with page 1) rather than continuous pagination (no interruption throughout the volume).
Article in an online journal (features stable URL, Uniform Resource Locator)
Reference: Cain, Arthur James. 1956. “The Genus in Evolutionary Taxonomy.” Systematic Zoology 5:97-109. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2411572. In-Text: (Cain 1956, 102)
Article in an online journal (features DOI, Digital Object Identifier)
Reference: Vos Post, Jonathan, and Kirk L. Kroeker. 2000. "Writing the Future: Computers in Science Fiction." Computer 33(1):29-37. https:/doi.org/10.1109/2.816266. In-Text: (Vos Post 2000, 31)
Article in a Newspaper or Popular Magazine
Reference: Darman, Jonathan. 2009. “Spitzer in Exile.” Newsweek, April 27, 2009. In-Text: (Darman 2009, 23) Reference: Santora, Marc. 2013. “New York School Bus Drivers Go on Strike.” New York Times, January 16, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/17/ny region/new-york-school-bus-drivers-go-on-strike.html?hp In-Text: (Santora 2013)
Reference: Thierer, Adam. 2009. “Man, Machine, and Copyright.” Review of Digital Barbarism: A Writer’s Manifesto, by Mark Helprin. National Review, July 20, 2009. http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A203541879/BIC1? u=vol_b92b&xid=b332280c#.WdU8yxEJz18 In-line: (Thierer 2009)
Thesis or Dissertation
Reference: Kay, James Michael. 2007. “Energy and Channel Efficient Control of Wireless Sensor Network Clusters.” PhD diss., University of Vermont. In-Text: (Kay 2007, 5)
Use of websites and their content must be documented as completely as possible, with these elements included, in the following order: author, year of publication, title of the page, title or owner of the site, last modified date, and URL. Access date is required if no date of publication or revision is listed, and in these cases n.d. should be listed for the date of publication.
Blog/Social Media Entry
Blog/social media content can be cited in the text of your paper, e.g. "Philip Baruth's award winning political blog, Vermont Daily Briefing, cited on July 6, 2011..." A formal entry in the reference list is not required, but an example will follow.
Reference: Baruth, Philip. 2011. “Santorum Berates Iowans, for Stupidity.” The Vermont Daily Briefing, July 6, 2011. http://vermontdailybriefing .com/ In-Text: (Baruth 2011) Reference: O'Brien, Conan (@ConanOBrien). 2015. "In honor of Earth Day, I'm recycling my tweets." Twitter, April 22, 2015, 11:10 a.m. https://twitter.com/ConanOBrien/status/590940792967016448. In-Text: (O'Brien 2015)
E-mail or Text
(personal communication; unpublished data)
E-mail or text messages can be cited in the text of your paper, for example: “In a June 2nd, 2011 e-mail message to his supporters, the former Vermont governor thanked …” A formal entry in the reference list is not required. In-text citations may use “pers. comm.” or personal communication to indicate this.
In-Text: (Howard Dean, pers. comm.) In-Text: (Howard Dean, unpublished data)
Updated by Maria Avery, April, 15, 2021.