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Chicago Style Citation Guide - Notes and Bibliography System

How to Cite Your Sources in Chicago Style

Documentation Type: Notes and Bibliography

The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2017) includes two documentation systems. System preference usually depends on the discipline, ask you instructor for clarification if you are unsure which system to use. The system described in this guide, notes and bibliography, requires numbered footnotes or endnotes (or both) and often, a bibliography. (A guide to the other system, the author-date system, is also available.) For detailed information about The Chicago Manual of Style, see the complete manual shelved near the reference desk under the call number: Ref Desk Z253 .U69 2017.

Type and center the word NOTES as a header for endnotes or footnotes.

  • Notes are created each time a source is used.
  • If the bibliography includes all works cited, then the notes do not need to include all citation information (see short form).
  • If there is no bibliography, then the notes should contain all citation information at the first mention of the source (see long form), and all other mentions of this work can use the short form of the citation.

Use SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY, WORKS CITED, or SOURCES CONSULTED as bibliography headers.

  • Arrange bibliography in alphabetical order by author last name, then in chronological order for entries by the same author.
  • Double-space between entries; single-space within entries.

BOOK

Standard

Note (Long):
     1. Kenneth Janda, Jeffrey M. Berry, and Jerry Goldman, The 
Challenge of Democracy, 6th ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 
2000), 45.

Note (Short):
     1. Janda, Berry, and Goldman, Challenge of Democracy, 45.

Bibliography:
Janda, Kenneth, Jeffrey M. Berry, and Jerry Goldman. The Challenge of
     Democracy. 6th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 2000.

More than 3 Authors

Note (Long):
     2. Jay McInnerney et al., Dressed to Kill: James Bond, the Suited
Hero (Paris: Flammarion, 1996).

Note (Short):
     2. McInnerney et al, Dressed to Kill.

Bibliography:
McInnerney, Jay, Nick Foulkes, Neil Norman, Nick Sullivan, and Colin
     Woodhead. Dressed to Kill: James Bond, the Suited Hero. Paris:
     Flammarion, 1996.

Edited

Note (Long):
     3. Brian McFarlane, ed., An Autobiography of British Cinema 
(London: Methuen, 1997).

Note (Short):
     3. McFarlane, Autobiography of British Cinema.

Bibliography: 
McFarlane, Brian, ed. An Autobiography of British Cinema. London: 
     Methuen, 1997.

Chapter/Essay

Note (Long):
     4. Julian Petley, "The Lost Continent," in All Our Yesterdays: 
90 Years of British Cinema, ed. Charles Barr (London: British Film 
Institute, 1986), 112.

Note (Short):
     4. Petley, "Lost Continent," 112.

Bibliography: 
Petley, Julian. "The Lost Continent." In All Our Yesterdays: 90 Years 
     of British Cinema, edited by Charles Barr, 98-119. London: 
     British Film Institute, 1986.

MULTI-VOLUME WORK

Note (Long):
     5. Neil Jamieson, "Vietnamese," in Encyclopedia of World 
Cultures, ed. David Levinson Boston: G.K. Hall, 1993), 5:285.

Note (Short):
     5. Jamieson, "Vietnamese," 285.

Bibliography: 
Jamieson, Neil. "Vietnamese." In Encyclopedia of World Cultures, 
     edited by David Levinson, 5:284-287. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1993.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Print

Note (Long):
     6. Judy Clark and Gordon MacKerron, "Great Expectations: A 
Review of Nuclear Fusion Research," Energy Policy 17 (1989): 51-52.

Note (Short):
     6. Clark and MacKerron, "Great Expectations," 51-52.

Bibliography: 
Clark, Judy, and Gordon MacKerron. "Great Expectations: A Review of 
     Nuclear Fushion Research." Energy Policy 17 (1989): 49-56.

Electronic

Access date is optional.

Note (Long):
     7. R. A. Farley and A. H. Fitter, "Temporal and Spatial 
Variation in Soil Resources in a Deciduous Woodland," Journal of 
Ecology 87, no. 4 (1999): 693, accessed December 5, 2013.

Note (Short):
     7. Farley and Fitter, "Temporal and Spatial Variation," 693.

Bibliography: 
Farley, R. A. and A. H. Fitter. "Temporal and Spatial Variation 
     in Soil Resources in a Deciduous Woodland." Journal of Ecology 
     87, no. 4 (1999): 688-696. Accessed December 5, 2017. 
     https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2745.1999.00390.

Descriptive Locator 

If there are no page numbers, a descriptive locator can be added; this is optional.

Note (Long): 
     8. Carol Krucott, "Scientists Say We're Sitting Ourselves 
to Death. But There's An Easy Solution ... Move!" Prevention 55, 
no. 7 (2003), under "Dead Man Sitting," http://web5.infotrac.
galegroup.com/itw/infomark/.

Note (Short):
     8. Krucoff, "Scientists Say We're Sitting Ourselves to Death..."

Bibliography: 
Krucoff, Carol. "Scientists Say We're Sitting Ourselves to Death. 
     But There's An Easy Solution ... Move!" Prevention 55, no. 7 
     (2003): 140-144. http://web5.infotrac.galegroup.com/itw/infomark/.

NEWS/MAGAZINE ARTICLE

Signed

If available, cite the page number in teh not, but omit it from the bibliography.

Note (Long): 
     9. Rick Weiss, "Army's Anthrax Material Surprises Some Experts," 
Washington Post, December 14, 2001.

Note (Short):
     9. Weiss, "Army's Anthrax Material".

Bibliography: 
Weiss, Rick. "Army's Anthrax Material Surprises Some Experts." 
     Washington Post, December 14, 2001.

Unsigned

If the article is unsigned, the publisher is listed as the author in the bibliography.

Note (Long):
     10. "The Hollywood Political Spigot," Los Angeles Times, November 
16, 2003.

Note (Short):
     10. "Hollywood Political Spigot".

Bibliography: 
Los Angeles Times. "The Hollywood Political Spigot." November 16, 2003.

BOOK REVIEW

Standard

Note (Long):
     11. Michiko Kakutana, "[A Portrait} of America as a Splendid 
Junk Heap," Review of Underworld, by Don DeLillo, New York Times, 
September 16, 1997, http://search.proquest.com/docview/109753791?
accountid-14679.

Note (Short):
     11. Kakutani, "[A Portrait] of America..."

Bibliography: 
Kakutani, Michiko. "[A Portrait] of America as a Splendid Junk Heap." 
     Review of Underworld by Don DeLillo. New York Times, September 
     16, 1997. http://search.proquest.com/docview/109753791?
     accountid=14679.

WEBSITE

Include as much of the following information as possible: author of the content, title of the site or page, title or owner of the site, and the UFL. Date of access should be included if no publication or revision date is listed.

Known Author

Note (Long):
     12. Bruce Drake, "Obama, Bush and the 'Second-term Curse,'" 
PewResearchCenter, December 20, 2013, http://pewrsr.ch/1d/rLaRF.

Note (Short):
     12. Drake, "Obama, Bush and the 'Second-term Curse.'"

Bibliography: 
Drake, Bruce. "Obama, Bush and the 'Second-term Curse." 
     PewResearchCenter. December 20, 2013. http://pewrsr.ch/1d/rLaRF.

Corporate Author

Note (Long):
     13. "Privacy Policy," Google: Policies & Principles, last 
modified June 24, 2013, http://www.google.com/policies/privacy.

Note (Short):
     13. Google, "Privacy Policy."

Bibliography: 
Google. "Privacy Policy." Google: Policies & Principles. Last 
     modified June 24, 2013. http://www.google.com/policies/privacy.

Updated by Megan Allison, October 3, 2017