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Chicago Style Citation Guide - Sciences

How to Cite Your Sources in Chicago Style

Documentation Type: Author-Date System

The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010) includes two documentation systems. The system described in this guide, the author-date system, has entries for a reference list of cited works and author-date citations inserted in the text.

A guide to the other system, Notes and Bibliography, is also available. For detailed information about The Chicago Manual of Style, see the complete manual shelved near the reference desk under the call number: B/H REF DESK Z253 .U69 2010.

See the examples below on how to document basic research materials. - Use a header like WORKS CITED or REFERENCES for the reference list. Arrange cited works in alphabetical order by author last name, then in chronological order for entries by the same author.

Note these features: Book titles are in italics, title case (all significant words upper case and any word after a colon, for example: Cite Right : A Quick Guide, etc. Titles of periodicals are in italics, title case, for example: Sight and Sound. *Article titles are Roman, title case, enclosed in quotation marks. Order of first author’s name is inverted.

*N.B.: For some academic disciplines in the sciences, a plain sentence case with no quotation marks may still be preferred. If in doubt, consult your instructor. See examples below (Journal Article).


One author


Lipson, Charles. 2011. Cite Right : A Quick Guide to Citation Styles--
   MLA, APA, Chicago, the Sciences, Professions, and More. 2 nd ed. 
   Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

An in-text citation looks like this:

(Lipson 2011, 193-195)

Two or more authors

Phelps, Renata, Kath Fisher, and Allan Ellis. Organizing and Managing 
   Your Research: A Practical Guide for Postgraduates. Los Angeles: 
   SAGE, 2007. 

(Phelps, Fisher, and Ellis 2007, 143-144) 

Four or more authors

Follow format for “two or more authors,” listing all authors in the reference list entry. For the in-text citation, however, list only the first named author and add et al., for example: 

(Hancock et al. 2009, 13-15)

Editor, translator, or compiler instead of author

Cahan, David, ed. 2003. From Natural Philosophy to the Sciences : 
   Writing the History of Nineteenth-century Science. Chicago: 
   University of Chicago Press.

(Cahan 2003, 267) 

Editor, translator, or compiler in addition to author

Galilei, Galileo. 2008. The Essential Galileo. Edited and translated 
   by Maurice A. Finocchiaro. Indianapolis: Hackett. 

(Galilei 2008, 253) 

Chapter or other part of a book

Constable, Catherine. 2009. “Reflections on the Surface: Remaking 
   the Postmodern with van Sant’s Psycho.” In Adaptation in 
   Contemporary Culture: Textual Infidelities, edited by Rachel 
   Carroll, 23-33. New York: Continuum. 

(Constable 2009, 27) 

Preface, foreward, introduction, or similar part of a book

Stewart, Amy. 2011. Introduction to Wicked Bugs: The Louse that 
   Conquered Napoleon’s Army & other Diabolical Insects. xi-xiv. 
   Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin Books. 

(Stewart 2011, xii) 

Book published electronically

Haldane, R. B. 1922. The Reign of Relativity. New Haven: Yale 
   University Press. uc1.b4252206 

(Haldane 1922, 243) 

Journal Article

Article in a print journal

Cain, A. J. 1956. *“The Genus in Evolutionary Taxonomy.” Systematic 
   Zoology **5:97-109. 

(Cain 1956, 102) 

*Some disciplines may prefer sentence case, i.e.: The genus in evolutionary taxonomy

**Include the issue number, for example: 5(3):97-109, only if the issue has separate pagination (begins with page 1) rather than continuous pagination (no interruption throughout the volume).

Article in an online journal (features stable URL, Uniform Resource Locator)

Cain, A. J. 1956. “The Genus in Evolutionary Taxonomy.” Systematic 
   Zoology 5:97-109. *Accessed June 24, 2011.

(Cain 1956, 102)

*Accession date is optional. Ask your instructor. 

Article in a Newspaper or Popular Magazine

Darman, Jonathan. 2009. “Spitzer in Exile.” Newsweek, April 27, 20-27. 

(Darman 2009, 23) 

Santora, Marc. 2013. “New York School Bus Drivers Go on Strike.” New 
   York Times, January 16.

(Santora 2013) 

Book Review

Thierer, Adam. 2009. “Man, Machine, and Copyright.” Review of Digital 
   Barbarism: A Writer’s Manifesto, by Mark Helprin. National Review, 
   July 20. sid=

Thesis or Dissertation

Kay, James Michael. (2007). “Energy and Channel Efficient Control of 
   Wireless Sensor Network Clusters.” PhD diss.,University of Vermont

Paper Presented at a Meeting or Conference

Mieder, Wolfgang. “A House Divided: From Biblical Proverb to Abraham 
   Lincoln and Beyond.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 
   American Folklore Society, Portland, Oregon, October 29, 1998. 

(Mieder 1998) 


Use of websites and their content must be documented as completely as possible, with these elements included, in the following order: author, year, title of the page, title or owner of the site, access date (or range of dates) or date last-modified, and URL. 

Office of Compliance Services, University of Vermont. 2013. “UVM’s 
   Institutional Policies Website.” University of Vermont. Accessed 
   January 17.

Blog Entry

Blog content can be cited in the text of your paper, e.g. “Philip Baruth’s award-winning politcal blog (at least in Chittenden County), Vermont Daily Briefing, cited on July 6, 2011 …” ; a formal entry in the reference list is not required, but an example will follow.

Baruth, Philip. 2011. “Santorum Berates Iowans, for Stupidity.” The 
   Vermont Daily Briefing, July 6. 

(Baruth 2011) 

E-mail or Text

(personal communication; unpublished data)

E-mail or text messages can be cited in the text of your paper, for example: “In a June 2nd, 2011 e-mail message to his supporters, the former Vermont governor thanked …”; a formal entry in the reference list is not required. In-text citations may use “pers. comm.” or personal communication to indicate this. 

(Howard Dean, pers. comm.) 

(Howard Dean, unpublished data) 

Comments to James Barickman, Bailey/Howe Library.
Updated January 18, 2013.